Breeding Policy

New Breeding Policy 2068
Present Situation of Livestock Breeding
- Activities conducted on the basis of “Conservation of livestock and Poultry and their Breeding Policy” (2056 B.S.)
- Improvement of local breeds of Cattle and Buffalo through use of exotic breeds bull of Jersey, Holstein and Murrah or the use of their frozen semen.
- Artificial Insemination program mostly through frozen semen of Jersey, Holstein and Murrah
- In-Situ conservation of certain identified indigenous breeds of local livestock and poultry.
- Out of total population of livestock and poultry, high productivity are cattle-9% and Buffalo-24%. Hence there is quite a need and potentiality of breed improvement in livestock.
- Nepal is rich in biodiversity and there are indigenous breeds which are either extinct or endangered to be extinct.

Problems and Challenges
- Due to lack of national policy Siri  cow is almost extinct and many more in danger of extinction.
- Due to negligence, there is even import of frozen semen of unnecessary breeds of animals. There is no regulatory function of import of such unsuitable semen due to lack of policy.
- Even identified breeds of animals are being bred with other breeds which may cause the loss of breed characters of certain animals.
- Challenges due to inbreeding
- Due to lack of proper policy, the agreements of conservation of genetic resources and biodiversity are not properly followed.
- There is challenge of reduction of productivity hence increase in the number of unproductive animals.

Need of New Livestock Breeding Policy
- Implementation of Agreements of New Earth Summit 1992 on livestock genetic resource conservation and their improvement.
- Implementation of Agreement of biodiversity article 6, 1993 in which every country has to develop the policy and strategy of conservation and improvement of indigenous   livestock genetic resources.
- Need of developing and improvement of suitable breeds of livestock, accepted by the Nepalese environment and management of Nepalese farmers. Unsuitable breeds of livestock should not be maintained and their import should immediately be stopped.
- The genetic make up of the suitable breeds of different eco-zones should be identified, fixed and utilized them practically.
- Recommendations and development of suitable breeds for different regions of the country.
- Identified local breeds of livestock and poultry need the effective conservation and proper development.

Vision
- Identification and utilization of genetic capabilities of livestock and poultry of Nepal.
- Increasing the productivity through suitable method of breeding and these animals should be properly conserved and utilized.
- Good Genetic characters of unidentified breeds of livestock and poultry should be utilized.
- Suitable percentage of genetic materials for different eco-zones of such livestock should be bred with exotic genetic make up to develop their phenotypic characters will accordingly be encouraged.
- Programs for conservation, improvement and utilization of endangered breeds of livestock

Mission
- Through improvement of livestock and poultry, there is increase of productivity of milk, meat and eggs and hence increase in farmer’s income.
- Suitable Utilization, conservation and improvement of genetic resources and capabilities of livestock and poultry and hence achievement of sustainable independency through increments of productivity.

Goal
- The annual growth rate of milk and meat production will be increased and the quality will be improved within 15 years to substitute the import.
- Poultry industry will be established as competitive and market oriented and present status of availability of meat and eggs for each person will be doubled for next 10 years.
- Suitable breeds of sheep will be developed for the production of wool carpet and sheep farming

Objectives
- Improvement in the situation of security of foods and nutrition through qualitative and quantitative increase of production and productivity of livestock and their products.
- Livestock industry should be upgraded as modern, competitive and eco-friendly to maintain the internal demand, substitution of import and promotion of export.

Policy
- Identification, development and extension of suitable breeds of livestock and poultry for the suitability of different geographical environment and resources.
- Increment of productivity of livestock and poultry through increase of genetic capabilities.
- Conservation, utilization and improvement of animal biodiversity.
- Development of livestock and poultry resource centers through public private partnership.
- Carry out study, research and human resource development for the promotion of high value commodities like domesticated species, dear, kasturi, wild pig, forest fowl(kalij).

Old Breeding Policy: 2055

For Cattle and Buffalo
- Jersey bull/semen should be used to upgrade nondescript and crossbred cows in mid-hills and Terai, with blood level not exceeding 62.5%.
- Haryana bull/semen should be used in Terai, to upgrade the native cows for milk and draft purpose.
- Existing Holstein and Brown Swiss crossbred animals will be maintained at 62.5% of respective blood level in dairy pocket areas and bull /semen of these breeds will be used to upgrade nondescript cows up to 62.5% of respective blood level.  Exotic blood level above 62.5% will be lowered through back-crossing.
- Murrah buffalo bull/semen should be used to upgrade low producing buffalo cows. There will not be any restriction in Murrah blood level in the Terai belt. However, Murrah blood will not exceed 62.5% in the mid-hills.
- The productivity of Yak, Lulu and Achhamee cattle will be improved through group breeding scheme to conserve and maintain their population up to 50,000 heads.
- Bull exchange program between farmer groups will be followed to check inbreeding.
- Nondescript bull elimination program, for controlling indiscriminate breeding, would be started in districts with intensive AI.